BK Writing Lab

CEWBRT Argumentative Structure
Ashleigh Bradley, M.Ed. and Paul DiGeorgio, Ph.D.


CEWBRT  Argumentative Paragraph Graphic Organizer



PROMPT: Fill in your instructor’s prompt here. You must make sure that your claim is a direct response to this prompt. 


CEWBRT: 3-Step Identification of Claim


Step 1 Identify the title and author.


Step 2 Recycle words from the prompt in your claim.


Step 3 Make your claim.


1) In ______________________________________________ by ___________________________________________, 

                                          title                                                           author


2) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

                                                                         recycled prompt words  


3) by/through/because ________________________________________________________________________.



CEWBRT: 4-Step Citing Evidence 


Step 1 - Use a transition word or phrase.


Step 2 - Give a summary/reference point.


Step 3 - Insert evidence directly or indirectly.


Step 4 - Include the in-text citation.

1) To clarify,/To illustrate,/Specifically,/When the author states.../For instance,/___________,



2) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

                                                                                    reference point


3) “______________________________________________________________________________________________”



4) (________________________________________________________).

                                          Publisher’s name


CEWBRT: 3-Step Warrant (explanation of evidence)


Step 1 - Use a transition word or phrase.


Step 2 - Use prior knowledge and logic to link the claim and the evidence.


Step 3 - Provide a reason why the link is true.


1) It is evident that..../Clearly/From...the reader concludes.../_________________________________



2) _______________________________________________________________________________________________.

                                                              link between the claim and the evidence 


3) The reason is that ___________________________________________________________________________.      

                                                                                synthesized reason why the link is true 


CEWBRT: 3-Step Backing (Defense)


Step 1 - Use a transition word or phrase.


Step 2 - Connect back to the claim. 


Step 3 - Build off the connection in an explanation by coupling it with prior 

   knowledge. Consider using an analogy.


1) It is important to note.../To elaborate,/Moreover/Likewise,/______________________________,



2) _______________________________________________________________________________________________.

                                                                                  connection statement


3) Clearly,/For example,/Stated differently,  ___________________________________________________



                                                                        build-off statement/analogy


CEWBRT: 3-Step Rebuttal


Step 1: Make a generalization about the opposition in the form of an independent 



Step 2: Insert a transition word that shows a shift in thinking.


Step 3: Write a second independent clause that refutes the 1st independent clause. 

 Consider using evidence from a different source.


Step 4 (OPTIONAL): Include the in-text citation. 


1) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

generalization about the opposition


2) , but ; however,        ; on the other hand,   ; conversely,


3) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

refutation of the 1st clause


4) ( ___________________________________________).

                              In-text citation


CEWBRT: 2-Option Think Forward


OPTION 1: If/When-then statement


1) If/When _____________________________________________________________________________________,

                                                            possible real-world scenario related to the text


2) then __________________________________________________________________________________________.

                                        likely consequence of the action that is not too broad or specific       


OPTION 2: Make a declarative statement that EITHER gives the reader a takeaway to mull over OR calls the reader to action. NOTE: This cannot be an imperative sentence (command) or an interrogative sentence (question).


Suffice it to say,/All in all,/Thus, _______________________________________________________________




Retype each section of the technique separately. Be sure to include the suggested words. 








Note: This structure is adapted from the work of Stephen Toulmin. See Sources of Argument (2003).

If you have any questions, send us an email at bkwritinglab@bishopkennyhs.org!

Image Credit: Structure by Humantech from the Noun Project


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