BK Writing Lab

Common Academic Abbreviations
Paul DiGeorgio, Ph.D.


e.g. = exempli gratia, "for example"

Example: The sign on the wall gives a few classroom rules, e.g., be courteous to one another.

i.e. = id est, "that is" or "in other words"

Example: The sign on the wall provides a list of proscriptions, i.e., things that should not be done.

et al. = et alia, "and others" (to replace a list of three or more people)

Example: The email indicated that the project was completed by Dr. Francisco et al. 

etc. = et cetera, "and the rest" (to replace a list of things)

Example: Make sure that you bring your materials to class, including your charged iPad, a couple of pens, paper, etc.

N.B. = nota bene, "note well" or "take note"

Example: N.B. Please consult the sign on the wall for a list of classroom rules.

ibid.= ibidem, "in the same place" or "in the same source"

Example: According to Travisano, conversion is “a radical reorgnization of identity, meaning, and life.” (601) When people convert, their new identities "exist in universes of discourse that negate...formerly established ones." (ibid.) 

viz = videre licet, "namely" or "that is to say" [typically but not always interchangeable with i.e.]

Example: We share the same view, viz, that the city should fix the issues with our public drinking water.

cf.= conferatur, "compare"

Example: Hobbes describes the hypothetical "state of nature" as "a war of all against all" (cf. Rousseau). [This example encourages the reader to compare Hobbes' view to Rousseau, because Rousseau held roughly the opposite  view, that we were happiest and most free in the "state of nature."]

If you have any questions, send us an email at bkwritinglab@bishopkennyhs.org!


Image Credit: Academic by Priyanka from the Noun Project

  • College
  • Papers
  • Writing